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Either of the long side-spaces in a basilica, separated from the nave by a row of columns.

The period of the first four caliphs.

Aphroditoi Papyri
The city Aphroditopolis is located in Egypt, south of Memphis, on the eastern bank of the Nile. This site served as a ritual center for the Hathor during the Helenistic period. At this site a unique group of Greek papyri was uncovered, including letters of correspondence between the local governor and the ruler in Fustat (701-710 CE). These letters, published by B.H. Bell, describe the convey of workers and building materials to the mosque in Jerusalem and to the Umayyad ‘palaces’.

Semicircular vaulted niche in the wall of a building. The apse of a Christian church is generally located in the east wall (see basilica).

A European term used to describe Islamic art, which incorporated script with floral and geometrical motifs.

A northwestern Semitic language of the inhabitants of Aram in Mesopotamia. From the sixth century BCE Aramaic became the dominant spoken tongue throughout the ancient East, including the Land of Israel. Some major Jewish compositions (e.g. the Babylonian Talmud and the Jerusalem Talmud) were written in Aramaic.

A recess with an arched ceiling; arcosolia in burial caves contained a shelf on which the body of the deceased was placed (plural: arcosolia).

Ark of the Covenant
The chest in which the Tables of Testimony were kept.

Block-shaped building stones, cut and dressed, frequently with drafted margins.

An association of Christian monks originating in the French city of Nîmes. The full name: Order of Augustinians of the Assumption.

In a Roman villa - the inner courtyard; in a church – a forecourt, in which worshipers could cleanse themselves before entering the church (see basilica).

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